Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Organisational Change at Nokia

Organisational Change at Nokia Nokia has been a leading seller of mobile phones in Europe and across the globe. The new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) decided to present new changes in order to make Nokia a leading competitor in the industry.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Organisational Change at Nokia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Stephen Elop, Nokia Corporation had become insensitive about the changing expectations of its customers. The employees at the company had weakened Nokia’s core competencies. The company was no longer promoting its Research and Development (RD) practices. The internal conflicts and competing agendas also affected the company’s business strategy. These job cuts would encourage innovative ideas and software development at the company. The practice would make Nokia a leading producer of smartphones. This decision was necessary towards improving Nokia’s responsiveness and agility. T he leader would manage the company’s web services and software development practices. The new leader wanted to reduce the expenses incurred by the giant corporation. The approach will make Nokia an innovative and competitive firm. The leader wanted the company to recover its glory in the global market. This explains why Stephen Elop was ready to eliminate 1800 jobs even though Nokia was performing well. Nokia decided to hire an American as the company’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO). There are several reasons to support this decision. To begin with, Nokia was the chief marketer of mobile phones in North America for very many years. New players had overtaken Nokia by 2009. Some of these marketers included Motorola, Research in Motion (RIM), LG, Apple, and Samsung. This situation explains why Nokia decided to hire an America. The new CEO would present the best incentives about the changing expectations of the American consumer.Advertising Looking for case study o n business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company’s decision to produce GSM phones also affected its performance in the United States. The new leader from American would advise the company to produce CMDA mobile phones. These phones are widely used in the United States. Nokia had failed to respond to the shifting expectations and tastes of its American customers. The new CEO would make it easier for the company to respond to these tastes and preferences. The CEO would consider such aspects during the production of Nokia’s smartphones. The second reason was that Microsoft is a successful Silicon Valley giant. Stephen Elop would offer the best leadership styles and recruit competent web designers for Nokia. The decision would make Nokia the leading producer and marketer of smartphones in the United States. This explains why the company’s decision to hire Stephen Elop was one of the best. T his case study explains why Nokia should move with haste to revitalize its performance in the United States. The new CEO should begin by using a transformational leadership style. The leadership approach will motivate every employee in order to achieve the targeted organisational goals. Stephen Elop should also encourage his employees to work as teams. The CEO should encourage his employees to be innovative. The leader should support Nokia’s research and development (RD) team. Stephen Elop should encourage his employees to interact with one another during decision-making and problem-solving practices. The manager can change Nokia’s organisational culture by hiring employees from different socio-cultural backgrounds.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Organisational Change at Nokia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These changes will support the company’s core competencies. These organisational changes will help Nokia produce the best smartphones that can address the changing needs and expectations of different customers in the United States.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

10 Important Events in the History of Latin America

10 Important Events in the History of Latin America Latin America has been always shaped by events as much as by people and leaders. In the long and turbulent history of the region, there were wars, assassinations, conquests, rebellions, crackdowns, and massacres. Which was the most important? These ten were selected based on international importance and effect on the population. It is impossible to rank them on importance, so they are listed in chronological order. 1. Papal Bull Inter Caetera and the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493–1494) Many people do not know that when Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas, they already legally belonged to Portugal. According to previous papal bulls of the 15th century, Portugal held claim to any and all undiscovered lands west of a certain longitude. After Columbus return, both Spain and Portugal laid claims to the new lands, forcing the pope to sort things out. Pope Alexander VI issued the bull Inter Caetera in 1493, declaring that Spain owned all new lands west of a line 100 leagues (about 300 miles) from the Cape Verde Islands. Portugal, not pleased with the verdict, pressed the issue and the two nations ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which established the line at 370 leagues from the islands. This treaty essentially ceded Brazil to the Portuguese while keeping the rest of the New World for Spain, therefore laying the framework for the modern demographics of Latin America. 2. The Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires (1519–1533) After the New World was discovered, Spain soon realized that it was an incredibly valuable resource that should be pacified and colonized. Only two things stood in their way: the mighty Empires of the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru, who would have to be defeated in order to establish rule over the newly-discovered lands. Ruthless conquistadores under the command of Hernn Cortà ©s in Mexico and Francisco Pizarro in Peru accomplished just that, paving the way for centuries of Spanish rule and enslavement and marginalization of New World natives. 3.  Independence from Spain and Portugal (1806–1898) Using the Napoleonic invasion of Spain as an excuse, most of Latin America declared independence from Spain in 1810. By 1825, Mexico, Central  America, and South America were free, soon to be followed by Brazil. Spanish rule in the Americas ended in 1898 when they lost their final colonies to the United States following the Spanish-American War. With Spain and Portugal out of the picture, the young American republics were free to find their own way, a process that was always difficult and often bloody. 4.  The Mexican-American War (1846–1848) Still smarting from the loss of Texas a decade before, Mexico went to war with the United States in 1846 after a series of skirmishes on the border. The Americans invaded Mexico on two fronts and captured Mexico City in May of 1848. As devastating as the war was for Mexico, the peace was worse. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming to the United States in exchange for $15 million and forgiveness of about $3 million more in debts. 5. The War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) The most devastating war ever fought in South America, the War of the Triple Alliance pitted Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil against Paraguay. When Uruguay was attacked by Brazil and Argentina in late 1864, Paraguay came to its aid and attacked Brazil. Ironically, Uruguay, then under a different president, switched sides and fought against its former ally. By the time the war was over, hundreds of thousands had died and Paraguay was in ruins. It would take decades for the nation to recover. 6. The War of the Pacific (1879–1884) In 1879, Chile and Bolivia went to war after spending decades bickering over a border dispute. Peru, which had a military alliance with Bolivia, was drawn into the war as well. After a series of major battles at sea and on land, the Chileans were victorious. By 1881 the Chilean army had captured Lima and by 1884 Bolivia signed a truce. As a result of the war, Chile gained the disputed coastal province once and for all, leaving Bolivia landlocked, and also gained the province of Arica from Peru. The Peruvian and Bolivian nations were devastated, needing years to recover. 7.  The Construction of the Panama Canal (1881–1893, 1904–1914) The completion of the  Panama Canal  by Americans in 1914 marked the end of a remarkable and ambitious feat of engineering. The results have been felt ever since, as the canal has drastically changed worldwide shipping. Less known are the political consequences of the canal, including the  secession  of Panama from Colombia (with the encouragement of the United States) and the profound effect the canal has had on the internal reality of Panama ever since. 8.  The Mexican Revolution (1911–1920) A revolution of impoverished peasants against an entrenched wealthy class, the Mexican Revolution shook the world and forever altered the trajectory of Mexican politics. It was a bloody war, which included horrific battles,  massacres, and assassinations. The  Mexican Revolution  officially ended in 1920 when Alvaro Obregà ³n became the last general standing after years of conflict, although the fighting continued for another decade. As a result of the revolution, land reform finally took place in Mexico, and the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party), the political party that rose from the rebellion, stayed in power until the 1990s. 9.  The Cuban Revolution  (1953–1959) When  Fidel Castro, his brother  Raà ºl  and a ragged band of followers  attacked the barracks at Moncada  in 1953, they may not have known they were taking the first step to one of the most significant revolutions of all time. With the promise of economic equality for all, the rebellion grew until 1959, when Cuban President  Fulgencio Batista  fled the country and victorious rebels filled the streets of Havana. Castro established a communist regime, building close ties  with  the Soviet Union, and stubbornly defied every attempt the  United States  could think of to remove him from power. Ever  since  that time, Cuba has either been a festering sore of totalitarianism in an increasingly democratic  world  or a beacon of hope for all anti-imperialists, depending on your point of view. 10. Operation Condor (1975–1983) In the mid-1970s, the governments of the southern cone of  South America- Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay,  Bolivia, and Uruguay- had several things in common. They were ruled by conservative regimes, either dictators or military juntas, and they had a growing problem with opposition forces and dissidents.  They, therefore,  established Operation Condor, a collaborative effort to round up and kill or otherwise silence their enemies. By the time it ended, thousands were dead or missing and the trust of South Americans in their leaders was forever shattered. Although new facts come out occasionally and some of the worst perpetrators have been brought to justice, there are still many questions about this sinister operation and those behind it. Sources and Further Reading Gilbert, Michael Joseph, Catherine LeGrand, and Ricardo Donato Salvatore. Close Encounters of Empire: Writing the Cultural History of U.S.-Latin American Relations. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1988.LaRosa, Michael and German R. Mejia. An Atlas and Survey of Latin American History, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge, 2018.Moya, Jose C. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.Weber, David J., and Jane M. Rausch. Where Cultures Meet: Frontiers in Latin American History. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield, 1994.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Wallmart (Global Economy, Global Competition) Research Paper

Wallmart (Global Economy, Global Competition) - Research Paper Example The size of an average store is 108,000 square feet. Each store employs about 225 associates. Wal-Mart Supercenters were developed in 1988 to meet the growing demand for convenient, one-stop family shopping. First opened in 1998, there are now 168 Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets. A typical store is about 42,000 square feet. Wal-Mart Express has been created to offer low prices every day in a smaller format store that provides convenient access for fill-in and stock-up shopping trips. Sam Walton, the mind behind Wal-Mart focused, on a single idea: selling merchandise at the lowest price possible. So he made sure everyone worked hard to keep costs as low as possible. Walton continued to drive an old pickup truck and share budget-hotel rooms with colleagues on business trips, even after Wal-Mart made him very rich. He demanded that his employees also keep expenses to a bare minimum, a mentality that is still at the heart of Wal-Mart culture more than a decade after Waltons death. The company has continued to grow rapidly after his death in 1992 and now operates four retail divisions; Wal-Mart Supercenters, Wal-Mart discount stores, Neighborhood Market stores and Sams Club warehouses (New York Times, 2012). Wal-Mart had its creation in the mind of Sam Walton who promoted a single idea: sell merchandise at the lowest price possible. It began with Wal-Mart working hard to keep the costs of their company as low as possible. This idea moved from their company to their suppliers as they asked them to be as frugal as possible. As the company grew in size, they began looking for every way to wring out the last penny of savings from materials, packaging, labor, transportation, and display. The result was "the Wal-Mart effect (Ghemawat & Mark, 2006). Because of its size Wal-Mart wields incredible power. This especially creates problems for local retailers forcing them out of business. Economist

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Criminal Justice Organizations- Assignment 3 Essay

Criminal Justice Organizations- Assignment 3 - Essay Example The early phases of the operation should remarkably be more challenging, because educating the new recruits of their functions is fundamental move in organizing the new group. Training is necessary, because this is the only way that the entire operation will have to work out. It should be integrated in the training that the new recruits should work undercover, allowing their identities to be a secret even if the operation goes on for good in the future. The knowledge about the training should only be between the new recruits and a contract is necessary, in order to ensure the privacy of the entire operation. This means that prior to the training process the new recruits should have to sign something, signifying some legal actions to be taken against them once the knowledge of their group may prevail in public in the future. Keeping the identities of the new recruits secret is one challenging task of the management. This is therefore a kind of task that requires systematic approach, instead of only training and other relevant preliminary activities prior to the institution and actual operation. The content of the training should remarkably involve the rules, the actual operation and the entire view of what the tasks should be performed. The training should also become a venue for the employee to mature or provide maximum growth. Based on the point of view of quality circle programs, employees are given the opportunity for maximum growth, and at least have the chance for enhancing their ability to improve themselves, professionally and personally (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2012, p.149). The training should therefore provide essential programs that will provide a venue for the newly hired for the position to experience maximum growth and improve their ability to improve themselves both professionally and personally. The new assignment is a

Friday, January 24, 2020

Alcohol and the Family Essay -- Alcoholism Drinking Essays Research Pa

Alcohol and the Family    In the United States alone, there are 28 million children of alcoholics - seven million of these children are under the age of eighteen.     Every day, these children experience the horrors of living with an alcoholic parent. 40%-50% of children of alcoholics grow up and become alcoholics themselves. Others develop eating disorders or become workaholics. Children of alcoholics receive mixed messages, inconsistency, upredictability, betrayal, and sometimes physical and sexual abuse from their parents. They are made to grow up too fast because they must help keep the family structure together by doing housework and taking care of siblings since the alcoholic is not doing his or her part. Children form roles that they play to help disguise the disease. The roles help distract people from seeing the real problem and serve to protect the family so it can continue to function. There are five roles that the family members will take on-- the enabler, the hero, the scapegoat, the lost chi ld, and the mascot. The enabler is usually the spouse or the parent of the alcoholic. He takes on the normal duties that the alcoholic would normally carry out such as cleaning the house, taking care of the children, or even something as simple as walking the dog. The enabler also makes excuses for the alcoholic. He may call his wife's boss and tell him she is sick when really she is home with a hang-over. Or he might explain to a neighbor that the living room lamp broke because the two-year-old accidentally knocked it off the table when in reality it was thrown across the room in a drunken fit. This act of covering up does nothing but harm the family in the end. The enabler is making excuses and lying to hide the true act... ...out the affects alcoholism has on the family, one may think that it is a life full of endless turmoil. There is help out there, though, which should begin in the school system. Schools need to educate kids about alcohol abuse and establish an ongoing trusting relationship with kids who need help. The children aren not to blame for the actions of their parents and they need someone to help them understand that it's not their fault and they can break the cycle. This way the children will know that they have at least one person they can turn to for help and that they aren't alone. Bibliography: 1. Children of Alcoholism, Barbara L. Wood, New York University Press, 1987 2. Working with Children of Alcoholics, Bryan E. Robinson, Lexington Books, 1989 3. Substance Abuse Treatment: A Family Systems Perspective, Edith M. Freeman, Sage Publications, 1993

Thursday, January 16, 2020

The Story of Jane Addams

Growing up without a mother and having a very prosperous father is quite a combination. Jane Addams had to deal with that, served her life and made the best of it. Addams did what she loved. Starting and having very much progression in a settlement house was her dream. The Hull-House helped the underprivileged people, people who needed attention, care, and love. Addams provided that and much more. Ever decide that if you wanted to do something real bad, you would know you would be doing it in the end? Saving lives, protecting families, helping the disabled, provide clubs and museums, and encourage communication. Then, the future is here and you are doing what you love. Occupation is a passion and your place of work! Born in Cedarville, IL, in 1860, Jane Addams had some rock times in her childhood. Addams was the eighth child born of nine others. Mr. Addams was a prosperous miller, local political leader as state senator for sixteen years, and he fought as an officer in the civil war. When Addams was two years old, her mother died of childbirth. At age seven, her father remarried causing her to distant the relationship between her and her father. As the years went on Jane Addams had her ups and downs. But that did not stop her from her succeeding. Addams did not go to her choice college, Smith College. She was sent to Rockford Female Seminary, a college mounted on Mount Holyoke College, which set students up from missionary work. She graduated with the class of 1882. The first graduating class of Rockford. In the next six years, she studied medicine, but has to leave due to poor health. In this process she was faced with a dilemma. Her father†s sudden death, only person she depended on the most, caused her stepmother to claim her. Addams education needed serious work while family issues and illnesses caused even more pressure. Also, Addams heath was not that good either. She has had several years of neurotic illness. She extended the American Girl†s Tour of Europe to two years of travel and study of reading and writing from 1883 to 1885. Addams working on avoiding family issues, she and a couple of college friend returned to Europe in 1887. Ellen Starr and Addams returned to the United States in 1889 and opened a settlement house after ending her studies. In 1889, Addams and Starr opened a home by Charles Hull in Chicago. The purpose of this settlement house was to â€Å"provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago. † Addams and Starr made speech, raised money, took care of children, helped the sick, listened to trouble individuals, and more. By the second year of the Hull-House, they have two thousand people that come every week. There were many programs they provided. Kindergarten classes, adult classes, club meetings for older children, nigh school. Many facilities were added to the settlement house also. The first that was added was an art gallery, the second was a public kitchen, then a coffeehouse, a gym, more and more was added as the years went on on help the people. Jane Addams was eventually a known woman of progress, great progress. People knew who she was, she became famous. In 1905, she was appointed to Chicago†s Board of education and made chairmen of School Management Committee. In 1909 she became the first women president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections. In 1910, she received an honorary degree ever awarded to a women at Yale University. Addams believed strongly in women†s right and they should speak out, hear a woman†s point of view. She was involved in many, many programs and took charge in many of them. In 1926, Addams suffered from a heart attack and never fully recovered. She†s remembered and thank. She helped society greatly and helped people smile in the end. The Hull-House was on great accomplishment of her many. On December 11 1931, the day she won the first Noble Peace Prize ever awarded to a women, she in the hospital and couldn†t make it. May 21, 1935, Addams dies of an unsuspected cancer. She was buried in her childhood town of Cedarville, IL. The Hull-House was a huge establishment Jane Addams held. It was very popular and helped save many and to just be happy. Addams accomplished a lot in her life and died a proud woman. She will and is remembered.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Is High-Intensity Resistance Training Program Practical...

Article Review 1 It is generally accepted that an improved diet and participation in exercise is beneficial for the maintenance of type 2 diabetes. However, the type of exercise that is most beneficial, endurance or resistance has been rarely studied. This article seeks answers to whether or not a high-intensity resistance training program is practical for older patients with type 2 diabetes who were recently sedentary, and if the participation in high-intensity resistance training along with moderate weight loss, representing the experimental group, is comparable to flexibility exercise with moderate weight loss, representing the control group. The results sought include compliance, reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), increases in muscular strength and lean body mass, and decreases in fat mass. There were 47 patients for this study, both men and women between the ages of 60 and 80 years, overweight, recently sedentary, nonsmokers, and had established type 2 diabetes without th e use of insulin. The subjects were separated between two groups by the type of exercise they would perform. Both were provided a healthy eating plan designed to provide a moderate weight loss of 0.25 kg/week for the course of the study. Adherence to the diet was assessed in biweekly interviews with the participants. Both groups visited the exercise lab 3 nonconsecutive days per week for 6 months. The control group exercise was designed to increase flexibility but not improve cardiovascularShow MoreRelatedNursing Essay41677 Words   |  167 Pagesengineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. 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